Thursday, September 3, 2020


â€Å"Animals are passing on everywhere throughout the world and turning out to be jeopardized species for the most part as a result of creature misuse and cruelty† (James Gorman). It is an overall issue that will proceed with except if individuals are worried about it or quit doing it. There ought to be more laws managing youngster work. Creature misuse prevents researchers from exploring creatures. Creatures become imperiled species. It additionally causes mental impact. Creature misuse must be annulled. One explanation creature misuse must be canceled is on the grounds that it prevents researchers from investigating different creatures. â€Å"Researching creatures helped make medications for awful diseases.† (James Gorman). One jeopardized creature is the chimpanzee, which is imperiled in view of being caught in confines. Another explanation creature misuse ought to be abrogated is that creatures bite the dust and become imperiled species. â€Å"Breeds of ponies face risk and termination due to creature abuse.† ( These ponies get butchered by individuals for their meat since individuals figure ponies can fix HIV. A few ponies are executed as a result of religion. Last explanation creature misuse ought to be nullified is that creature misuse causes mental impact. â€Å"This implies creatures are modest and forceful in view of being harmed and harmed. The most negative thing about creature misuse is mental effect.† (James Gorman). As should be obvious, there are numerous reasons why there ought to be more laws directing creature misuse. Creatures getting harmed and hurt gravely causes numerous awful things. It makes researchers abandon their exploration on creatures, creatures draw near to danger or annihilation, and above all, it will cause impacts when creatures are harmed. In the event that you see creatures getting manhandled or rewarded terrible, call the ASPCA. They are experts and spare and discover homes for creatures consistently.

Friday, August 28, 2020

Enterprise Resource Planning Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

Venture Resource Planning - Article Example While there has been itemized examination and understanding in the expected areas, a couple of essential definitions have additionally been added to encourage the investigation here. It is significant that organizations have a completely clear comprehension with respect to what is endeavor asset arranging before mulling over on its execution as the criticalness to gain brings about a constrained time period frequently invalidate the very point of putting resources into ERP. While we know ERP quickens results and speed is one of the key drivers, the quicker it is actualized the snappier and better are the favorable circumstances and conveyance as far as results, anyway this early procedure has an enormous obstruction, the profits are looked for at a shorter period which may daze the organizations to anticipate long haul impacts. This deviation from the regular practice is by and large to a great extent executed most definitely. Business process reengineering assumed a crucial job regarding its execution. One has to know the segments of Enterprise asset arranging past the definition to advance the enthusiasm of ERP . The most common result of this exertion lead to advancement of holes between the genuine outcomes and the one inferred during the way toward anticipating or at arranging stage. Altering ERP without an idea through examination, just at the smallest necessity of different partners in the association, trim of practices followed in the organization would definitely drag the appraisal of results past as far as possible allowed to assess its prosperity. Not to mention the colossal fiscally sway, it additionally harms essential client's trust. It is additionally important to comprehend that negligible ERP arranging doesn't ensure the advantage of ERP. It must be actualized as arranged undertaking subsequent to understanding the parts of big business asset arranging. Notwithstanding having improved the usage issues what stays static is the way wherein organizations proceed with ERP execution. The goals with respect to why ERP, should be obvious to any firm that is wanting to actualize it. The key ones are recorded in the outline underneath with improved client care at the highest point of it as expanded client care is straightforwardly corresponding to extra business and development in income. Why ERP 2. Endeavor Resource Planning Approach The area above quickly clarifies the key drivers an association need to consider before utilizing the ERP approach. It very well may be progressively hard to oversee and quantify viability and accomplishment of the methodology in the event that it is executed as a need of the occasions work out, only for name purpose without following methodical techniques. It is essential to

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Bankruptcy Rates Among Nfl Players With Short-Lived Income Spikes

Question: Examine about the Bankruptcy Rates Among Nfl Players With Short-Lived Income Spikes? Answer: Presentation The point of this task is to research the job of the U.S. government in defending the wellbeing of National Football League (NFL). It is profoundly significant for the administration to forestall blackout related issues of the NFL players by actualizing successful approaches. So as to recognize the duty of the legislature is defending the players; this task comprises of various diary articles. In the writing audit, area of this paper, various issues of blackout has been investigated for recognizing the obligations of the administration in connection with the way toward shielding the NFL players. Offering security to the expert football players for analysis wounds during playing is the underside duty of the administration (Kirschen et al. 2014). Various analysts have directed research with respect to this specific theme and shows that the legislature isn't effectively protecting the NFL players. The games law diary has explored whether the U.S. government is assuming the liability of shielding the players or not. Likewise, according to sociology inquire about system, the analyst has contended that the legislature has not made any goal to contribute tremendous sum for shielding the National Football League player. US government has forced numerous approaches, for example, NFL medication and Harm decrease for defending the NFL players. This strategy encourages the NFL players to decrease the negative effect of the illicit psychoactive medications. According to this approach, players are not permitted to ingest medications before participating in the game. Not conforming to this specific approach is having punishing results, for example, derivation of installment and suspension (Greenhow, 2011). The whole research led by the specialist has no effect on the defending arrangements, which are shielding the National Football League players from blackout emergency. Aside from that, this paper is additionally considering various wounds of NFL players during performing for the group. The specialist has directed phone review and contrasted the current circumstance and the past circumstance and accentuated that the past players were less punished during performing for the group. Audit of Literature The writing audit segment of this task is underscoring the specific significance of blackout in NFL. So as to diminish the negative effect of blackout and defend the players from getting influenced by such wounds, the board of NFL has built up a panel named Neck, Spine and Head Committee (Carlson et al. 2015). This panel screens and finding the issues looked by the players while playing football in the class. In the past period, players were fulfilled enough with the administrative advances in regards to players wounds. Nonetheless, in current days, the executives is confronting various types of issues while deciding the injury of players. Following are the issues controlled by the specialists in the writing survey of this theme. Blackout the board alludes to the procedure followed by NFLs the executives for recuperating the players from lethal wounds. The U.S. Government isn't keeping up the real procedure of examining players wounds because of playing (Moran, 2015). Nonetheless, the strategies forced by the legislature recommend that the procedures are reasonable enough for protecting the players. The specialist has additionally contrasted the administrative approaches and the present obligations of the administration. Also, the analyst has noticed that the paces of blackouts are expanding quickly and the claims are documented to diminish the negative effect of blackouts among the NFL players (Pietrosimone et al. 2015). So as to improve the ebb and flow circumstance, it is essential to put away colossal measures of cash and research. Be that as it may, the U.S. government is hesitant to make such strides for the NFL players. The specialist has recognized that the circumstance is disintegrating step by step and the past players of the NFL has revealed that the torment looked by the present players is high in contrast with the torment they have confronted (Schmittel Sanderson, 2014). Lately, the legislature has forced various enactments for diminishing utilization of unlawful medications during playing football. These enactments are helping in improving wellbeing state of the players and assisting with directing a reasonable game practices (Greenhow, 2011). Along these lines, the administration and the administration of the NFL both are having similar duties regarding keeping up the present circumstance. Research led by various scientists has underlined that the legislature has made numerous strides for shielding NFL players. Notwithstanding, the means taken by them are not having any positive effect on the state of NFL players. This specific circumstance needs powerful systems and close perception instead of simply forcing strategies (Carlson et al. 2015). It is the sole duty of the NFLs the board and government to screen the viability of the forced systems for disposing of the present issues. Conversation Source: The information of this examination report has been assembled by directing telephonic overview with 10 individuals from the supervisory crew of some significant football clubs who are likewise associated with the National Football League. 20 players additionally met via phone for social affair the thought regarding the wellbeing and security necessities of the football. Government rules and enactments have an elevated level of impact on the medical problems of the NFL players. The Concussion laws of the government enactment majorly affect the treatment and protecting the NFL players. These enactments ought to be presented in all the areas of the U.S. The goal of these enactments is to ensure the youthful players of the football crew and different games which have the danger of blackouts. In the start of the time of 2014, just about 50 conditions of the U.S. have embraced the blackout related enactments for ensuring the players. These enactments have three fundamental parts. The main segment is training in which the schools need to create rules about the games and the hazard factors associated with every one of the games. This idea driving this progression taken by the administration is that the correct degree of mindfulness may diminish the likelihood of mishaps in the specific field (Pietrosimone et al. 2015). The kids will have the option to gain proficiency with all the hazard factors and to ensure themselves in the play ground in future. So as to maint ain a strategic distance from the future inconvenience with respect to the medical problems of the players, the gatekeeper should sign a structure in regards to the affirmation of the potential dangers of the blackouts in the wake of understanding the various elements of the specific game. The second part of the enactments is the expulsion of the harmed player. As per this segment of this enactment, if any player is recognized having blackout during the training or in a game, the player ought to be promptly expelled from the play and the administration should give viable degree of treatment to the player. The third guideline is about the returning of the harmed player to the game. In this segment, the harmed player ought to have a wellness authentication by an authorized specialist. Government has built up this enactment and the states are likewise received this however there are still a few issues with the accompanying of the guidelines of the enactment. The administration ought to likewise give center around the sort of exercises done by the players and the games associations for observing the principles. Protecting the lesser players is likewise significant for defending the NFL players in light of the fact that the group required fit players which have the best possible information about the shields of the play. The specialists who are giving medicines and the clinical wellness testaments to the players ought to know about the way that wherein they can give the wellness authentications to the players as the treatment of the typical individuals and the treatment of the players with blackout is very extraordinary. If there should arise an occurrence of having any issues during the time of training, the administration ought to permit the players to have returned to the group if and just on the off chance that they can give the composed endorsement of the specialist. In some minor cases, it has been discovered that the players got permitted by verbal correspon dence with the specialist. Government should center around there and the administration of the NFL group ought to keep up all the segments of the enactments appropriately for shielding the players of the NFL group (Pietrosimone et al. 2015). Managing the poor practice worries of the wellbeing and security issues is one of the most significant worries of the administration for guaranteeing the shielding of the NFL players. Different clubs where the players are creating should center here. The poor practice concerns ought to be seen from the grass root level of the players. All the clubs ought to send a referral to the Football Association Safeguarding Team if there should be an occurrence of rehashed poor practices found in the playing field. So as to stay away from any uncertainty a referral requires ought to be made where same sort of poor practices found by a similar individual in the region of three occurrences. This is whether these occurrences are for a similar kind of poor practice, or for various types of poor practice, so that there is some FA support for County FAs and clubs, and oversight of the limits for poor practice cases being overseen locally. Poor practices can be characterized by the accompanying realities: Insufficient consideration is taken for maintaining a strategic distance from the wounds during the play, permitting mishandling or this kind of action for staying away from the b est possible revealing of the wounds, permitting the initiation rehearses unreported to the FA Safeguarding group, giving awkward and containing condition to the players, disregarding the wellbeing and security necessity related rules, f

Understand How To Safeguard The Wellbeing Of Children And Young People Free Essays

There is significantly more to Safeguarding than simply shielding kids from direct maltreatment. Any assistance that works with kids and youngsters realizes that they have an a lot more extensive duty than essentially shielding the kids from disregard and misuse. An activity plan was set up by Her Majesty’s Government called the ‘Stay Safe’ activity plan, and it recognizes various significant highlights in the more extensive perspective on shielding including: †¢Keeping youngsters safe from mishaps †¢Crime and harassing †This could be helping casualties of wrongdoing and furthermore helping those that carry out wrongdoing. We will compose a custom paper test on See How To Safeguard The Wellbeing Of Children And Young People or on the other hand any comparative subject just for you Request Now This could likewise be witness’s that need bolster Bullying could be racially inspired, digital, content. Ensuring that kids and guardians are given the data to secure themselves †¢Forced relationships †¢Missing kids †This means to build up an activity intend to put the standards set out in The Children’s Society suggestions enthusiastically, to start an early audit of crisis settlement arrangement, to consider how nearby specialists can best give safe spots and ‘breathing spaces’ for youthful wanderers; and overhaul the Missing from Home and Care direction, related to the survey of the Children Act 1989 guidelines and direction. †¢Actively advancing their government assistance in a solid and safe condition †The Staying Safe activity plan expresses that it is significant that everybody (guardians, professionals, government) cooperate to make the most advantageous, most secure condition feasible for youngsters and youngsters to get to any place they are, regardless of whether they’re at home, school/nursery, on open vehicle or simply outside playing. It is everyone’s duty to make this protected condition with the goal that every youngsters can accomplish and are getting the most ideal help. The Staying Safe conference record set out three degrees of shielding: †¢Universal defending †Working to keep all youngsters and youngsters safe and make safe situations for all kids †¢Targeted shielding †Some gatherings of kids are more in danger than others, and it is imperative to target approaches and administrations to these gatherings, to help protect them from hurt †¢Responsive shielding †Unfortunately, regardless of what we do, thereâ will consistently be a few kids and youngsters who endure hurt. We have to react rapidly and properly when this happens †supporting youngsters and managing the individuals who hurt them. The most effective method to refer to Understand How To Safeguard The Wellbeing Of Children And Young People, Papers

Friday, August 21, 2020

Interlanguage and the Error analysis Essay Example

Interlanguage and the Error investigation Essay The students growing second language information. It might have qualities of the students local language, attributes of the subsequent language, and a few qualities which appear to be exceptionally broad and will in general happen in all or most interlanguage frameworks. Interlanguages are efficient, yet they are likewise unique, consistently advancing as students get more information and change their theories about the subsequent language. L2 students process through an interlanguage, which is an autonomous information on L1 and L2 framework. Interlanguage is efficient, in light of the fact that the student chooses the principles methodicallly, students puts together plans with respect to the standard framework, similarly as the local speaker bases on the disguised information on L1 framework. Interlanguage is dynamic; students interlanguage is continually evolving. The student amends the between time framework to oblige new theories about L2 framework. (First presentation the new principle in one setting and than another, etc) The term interlanguage was first given by Selinker (1972) Interlanguage alludes to the organized framework which student builds at some random stage in the turn of events. Interlanguage alludes to the arrangement of interlocking framework which structure the students worked in prospectus Corder L2 student progress along the interlanguage continuum similarly as it was in L1. Both L1 and L2 students make mistakes so as to try out certain speculation about the idea of the language they are learning. The 5 guideline together comprise the manner by which the student attempts to disguise the L2 framework. We will compose a custom exposition test on Interlanguage and the Error examination explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on Interlanguage and the Error investigation explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on Interlanguage and the Error investigation explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer Students have constrained space for preparing, can't adapt to the mind boggling language framework. Some L2 students neglect to arrive at the objective language, since they don't arrive at the finish of the interlanguage continuum, quit realizing, when their interlanguage contains a few standards not the same as the guidelines of the objective language. This is called fossilization. Fossilization happens in most language students. Fossilized structure can be acknowledged as blunders or as right objective language structures. On the off chance that the student has arrived at the phase of advancement, wherein 1 component in the interlanguage has accepted a similar structure in the objective language, than fossilization of the right structure will happen. On the off chance that the student has arrived at the phase of advancement wherein the component doesn't have a similar structure as the objective language, the fossilization will happen as a mistake. All things considered the fossilization happen, in light of the fact that the student accepts that he doesn't have to build up his interlanguage any further, so as to impart adequately. We know from Chomsky, that youngsters get dialects, as a result of the presence of the childs obtaining gadget, which changes with age and its unrealistic after adolescence. The inquiry: How do grown-ups prevail with regards to learning L2, if the procurement gadget isn't feasible for them any more? As Selinker contended that those grown-ups, who effectively accomplish local speaker capability in the TL, do as such, in light of the fact that they keep on utilizing procurement gadget and they can change the general syntax into the structure of the punctuation of the objective language. In any case, those grown-ups who can't accomplish capability is on the grounds that, they can't reactivate the securing gadget. Until 1960, the avoidance of blunders was increasingly significant, than the recognizable proof of mistakes. It was Corder, who initially understood the significance of dissecting the students blunders (1967). As I said previously, both L1L2 students make blunders so as to try out certain theory about the idea of the language, they are learning. Corder considered the to be of blunders as a procedure, proof of students interior handling. This was in restriction of the perspective on behaviorist brain science, introduced in the Contrastive Analysis previously. Since Contrastive examination accepted that mistakes delivered by the L2 student, result from the impedance of L1,Contrastive investigation depended on the correlation of L1 and L2, and educator knew about the blunders. The new enthusiasm for mistakes was the acknowledgment that they give data about the procedure of obtaining.

Best Presidential Memorial Day Quotes

Best Presidential Memorial Day Quotes Philanthropic, teacher, and previous tennis player Arthur Ashe once stated, True gallantry is astoundingly calm, undramatic. It isn't the desire to outperform all others at whatever cost, yet the inclination to serve others at whatever cost. As Memorial Day draws near, save a second to consider the numerous warriors who kicked the bucket battling for freedom. American Presidents Speak on Memorial Day The 34th leader of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower, communicated it wonderfully, Only our individual confidence in opportunity can keep us free. As another American president, Abraham Lincoln, put it, Freedom is the last, best any expectation of earth. Lincoln controlled the nation through the Civil War, spared the Union and finished servitude. Who better to characterize opportunity for us? These are the absolute best Memorial Day cites from American presidents. Peruse their encouraging statements, and comprehend the core of an American loyalist. John F. Kennedy Tell each country, regardless of whether it wishes us well or sick, that we will follow through on any cost, bear any weight, meet any hardship, bolster any companion, restrict any adversary to guarantee the endurance and the achievement of freedom. Richard Nixon, 1974 What we do with this harmony whether we save it and shield it, or whether we lose it and let it sneak away-will be the proportion of our value of the soul and penance of the several thousands who gave their lives in two World Wars, Korea, and in Vietnam. This Memorial Day ought to help us to remember the significance that past ages of Americans accomplished from Valley Forge to Vietnam, and it ought to rouse us with the assurance to keep America incredible and free by keeping America protected and solid time permitting, a period of one of a kind predetermination and open door for our Nation. Harmony is the genuine and right commemoration for the individuals who have kicked the bucket inâ war. Benjamin Harrison I have never fully had the option to feel that half-masted banners were fitting on Decoration Day. I have rather felt that the banner ought to be at the pinnacle, in light of the fact that those whose withering we recognize celebrated in observing it where their valor set it. Woodrow Wilson, 1914 I accept that warriors will bear me out in saying that both come in time of fight. I take it that the ethical mental fortitude comes in going into the fight, and the physical boldness in remaining in. Consequently this impossible to miss thing comes to fruition, that we can remain here and acclaim the memory of these officers in light of a legitimate concern for harmony. They set us the case of generosity, which whenever followed in harmony will make it pointless that men ought to follow war any more. They needn't bother with our recognition. They needn't bother with that our reverence ought to support them. There is no everlasting status that is more secure than theirs. We come not for the wellbeing of they however for our own, all together that we may drink at similar springs of motivation from which they themselves selves drank. Lyndon Johnson, 1966 On this Memorial Day, it is directly for us to recall the living and the dead for whom the call of their nation has implied a lot of torment and penance. Harmony doesn't come since we wish for it. Harmony must be battled for. It must be assembled stone by stone. Herbert Hoover, 1931 It was the extraordinary determination and relentlessness of these men who in difficulty and in enduring the breaking point of our history held dedicated to a perfect. Here men persevered through that a country may live. A perfect is an unselfish desire. Its motivation is the general government assistance of this as well as of people in the future. It is a thing of the soul. It is a liberal and accommodating want that all men may share similarly in a typical decent. Our goals are the concrete, which ties human culture. Valley Forge has come without a doubt to be an image in American life. It is more than the nameâ forâ a place, more than the area of a military scene, something other than a basic occasion ever. Opportunity was won here by fortitudeâ notâ by the glimmer of the blade. Bill Clinton, 2000 You battled for opportunity in outside terrains, realizing it would ensure our opportunity at home. Today, opportunity progresses all around the globe, and without precedent for all mankind's history, the greater part the world’s individuals pick their own pioneers. Truly, America has made your penance matter. George Bush 1992 Regardless of whether we watch the event through open service or through private supplication, Memorial Day leaves scarcely any hearts unaffected. Every one of the nationalists whom we recall on this day was initial a cherished child or little girl, a sibling or sister, or a mate, companion, and neighbor.â 2003 Their penance was extraordinary, however not futile. All Americans and each free country on earth can follow their freedom to the white markers of spots like Arlington National Cemetery. Furthermore, may God keep us ever thankful. 2005 Looking over this field, we see the size of gallantry and penance. All who are covered here comprehended their obligation. All remained to ensure America. And all conveyed with them recollections of a family that they would have liked to be careful by their penance. Barack Obama, 2009 They, andâ we,â are the heritages of a solid chain of pleased people who served their nation with respect, who battled so we may know harmony, who conquered hardship so we may know opportunity, who died so we may know opportunity. On the off chance that the fallen could address us, what might they say? Would they comfort us? Maybe they may state that while they couldn't know they’d be called upon to storm a sea shore through a hail of gunfire, they were happy to quit any pretense of everything for the guard of our opportunity; that while they couldn't know they’d be called upon to bounce into the mountains of Afghanistan and look for a subtle adversary, they were eager to forfeit for their nation; that while they couldn’t conceivably realize they would be called to leave this world for another, they were eager to take that risk to spare the lives of their siblings andâ sistersâ in arms.

Wednesday, June 10, 2020

Worth the Third Part of an Angevin Lancelot as Paragon of Courtly Virtue in The Knight of the Cart - Literature Essay Samples

One of the key indicators of the effectiveness of a romantic tale is whether those who hear it fall entirely under the spell of the hero as he takes on an idealized, larger-than-life status, becoming everything which the listener could ever want in a lover. Lancelot, paramour of Queen Guinevere and one of the great romantic figures of medieval literature, is therefore portrayed as exemplifying the courtly values so vital to the age in which Chretien de Troyes was writing. It seems likely that Chretien depicted his character thus very deliberately, not only to please the lady for whom he was writing the story, Marie de Champagne, but to enrapture a larger, predominantly female audience as well. One of the more fascinating episodes in the tale, one which clearly demonstrates Lancelots idealization as a male romantic figure, is that in which a nameless girl approaches Lancelot, demanding that he sleep with her in return for lodging, and later subjects him to a test in order to determ ine his strength of character. This short episode has both a practical aspect and a larger thematic one: practical, in that the episode demonstrates Lancelots desirability, both physically and as a paragon of chivalry, and thematic, in that the test to which the girl subjects the knight serves not only as a test of his worthiness of her, but as a divine test of honor, determining whether Lancelot is worthy of his quest and, ultimately, whether he is worthy of the great gift of Love which has been bestowed upon him.The episode serves, outwardly, as a mechanism by which Chretien can convey to his audience Lancelots extreme physical allure, as well as his equally attractive commitment to chivalric values. Chretien makes sure to acknowledge that the girl who approaches Lancelot requesting his company in her bed is most comely and attractive, and that many would have thanked her five hundred times for such an offer, indicating not only that Lancelot is the sort who would attract such a woman, but additionally that he is of supreme strength of character to reject such an offer, begging: My lady, I thank you most sincerely for your kind offer of hospitality; but, if you please, I would prefer not to sleep with you (p. 219). Indeed, Lancelot is so desirable that Chretien intimates that the girl would love him so much that she would not want to let him go (p. 219). The episode, then, clearly announces Lancelot as an idealized male figure who is so attractive to women that even beautiful ones request his body as a condition of hospitality. Lancelots idealization in this episode goes beyond mere physical attractiveness; here, perhaps more than anywhere else, he is portrayed as a stereotypical almost comically so paragon of chivalric virtue. He comports himself to what is in his estimation the most courtly degree possible, determined to fulfill his promise to the girl in the most chivalric way he can think of. He recognizes that he must keep his promise at all costs, but manages nevertheless to maintain his loyalty to his great love, the Queen. Lancelot holds this balance by first expressing his thanks for the offer of hospitality, but telling the girl that he would prefer not to sleep with her, careful at all times to demonstrate honor and respect (p. 219). When the girl insists that he must sleep with her, the knight, when he saw he had no choice, granted her what she wished, though it pained him to do so. Yet if it wounded him now, how much more it would do so at bedtime! (p. 219). Lancelot recognizes the importance of keeping ones word, but his heart never leaves his Queen. When he re-enters the house with great reluctance after dinner, he cannot find the girl, and goes in search of her, determined to be a man of his word though it pains him to do so. Wherever she may be, he says to himself, Ill look until I find her (p. 220). When he finds the girl naked, pinned beneath a would-be rapist, the sight evoked no lust in our knight , nor did he feel the least touch of jealousy (p. 221). Though Lancelot wishes only to go in search of his Queen, he is so chivalrous that he condemns himself for his moments hesitation before going to the girls aid: I am greatly shamed even to have considered holding back my heart is black with grief (p.221). Thereafter, he keeps his sights firmly on the goal of rescuing she who had offered her hospitality, and allows no lustful thoughts to enter his mind. Finally, when the girl calls on him to fulfill his promise at last, Lancelot does so with the greatest possible amount of loyalty and chivalry:In the midst of his sufferings his promise overpowered him and urged him on He lay down with great reluctance He carefully kept from touching her, moving away and turning his back to her. Nor did he say any more than would a lay-brother, who is forbidden to speak when lying in bed. Not once did he look towards her or anywhere but straight before him. He could show her no favour. B ut why? Because his heart, which was focused on another, felt nothing for her; not everyone desires or is pleased by what others hold to be beautiful and fair (p. 222).The great chivalry which Lancelot shows the girl who has offered him lodging in return for a bedmate demonstrates the knights supreme strength of character, showing him to be extremely desirable not only physically, but as the epitome of courtly virtue. Something vital to take note of, particularly in this episode, is Chretiens often ironic attitude towards his characters. Chretien certainly did not approve of adulterous love, as evidenced by his distaste for Tristan and Isolde, and his attitude towards Lancelot is in actuality somewhat negative. It is indeed quite comic, wallowing in Lancelots anxiety at being forced to sleep with a beautiful lady, but it is nevertheless important to keep in mind for whom Chretien was composing this tale. He was commissioned to write Lancelots story, regardless of how personally reprehensible he may have found it, and he thus was responsible for conveying the story which he had promised: the tale of a chivalrous, courtly lover who must sway the imaginations and hearts of the ladies who hear it, particularly Marie de Champagne. Chretiens true attitude towards his subject comes out through his ironic take on Lancelots undying devotion, and certainly makes itself apparent when he is ultimately unable to finish the story, but the intent of the episode is nevertheless to convey Lancelots chivalry and loyalty towards his true love. In this episode, he is trying and whether he is successful is certainly questionable to portray Lancelot in keeping with the story he had promised his patroness, but it is perhaps because of his extremely ironic tone towards the character that he abandoned (or was asked to abandon) the story. Chretiens intentions for the story were to provide Marie de Champagne with the tale that she had requested, and regardless of his own pers onal beliefs, which can clearly be seen throughout The Knight of the Cart, the episode was designed to portray Lancelot in a positive light. The second function that Chretien intended for this brief episode in The Knight of the Cart was to determine not only whether Lancelot is worthy of the girl who tests him, but whether he is worthy of Love at all. At times it even seems as though the test is on direct order of the Queen. Though logistically this is unlikely impossible, even it is such a perfect test of Lancelots loyalty and chivalry that the idea must at least be mentioned. It appears that Lancelot passes his test of honor in the eyes of the girl who offers him lodging, at least, for she declares: Of all the knights I have ever known this is the only one I would value the third part of an angevin (p. 223). However, the larger question is whether Lancelot is able to pass the more meaningful test: proving himself deserving of the great gift of true Love. The episode, with its numerous unreal elements, has an otherworldly, mysterious feel that suggests a divine test. When Lancelot enters the bailey with the girl he discovers that there was no one within, apart from him for whom she had been waiting (p. 219). Upon entering the building they saw a table covered with a long, wide clothThere were lighted candles in candelabra and gilded silver goblets, and two pots, one filled with red wine and one with whiteThey neither saw nor found valet, servant or squire therein (p. 219-220). The strange image of a beautifully laden table combined with the total absence of anyone besides the knight and the lady who is to test him lends the episode an odd supernatural feel, as though the girl was indeed sent for a divine purpose, to determine Lancelots true worth. Lancelot has an acute awareness of the duty which he bears as a result of being the recipient of the touch of Love, and he is determined to do what is right. As he lies in bed beside the girl, Chretien explains his disinterest:Whoever Love deigns to rule should esteem themselves all the more. Love esteemed this knights heart and ruled it above all others and gave it such sovereign pride that I would not wish to find fault with him here for rejecting what Love forbids him to have and for setting his purpose by Loves commands (p. 223).Lancelots bravery in battle is not the only component of his character being tested in this episode; more importantly, what is being examined is his loyalty to his true love. Certainly, Lancelot is chivalrous in his behavior towards the girl, and yes, he is strong and brave, but beyond that, he is able to lie beside another and keep his thoughts focused entirely on his Queen, and that is the true test around which this episode revolves. Perhaps Love, who Chretien humanizes in the above passage, is the one testing Lancelot, in service to the Queen. Lancelots passing of this test is clearly noted by the girl, when she departs from the bed chamber: R est well this night, she tells him, for you have kept your promise so fully that I have no right to ask even the least thing more of you (p. 223). Lancelot has not only managed to remain loyal to Love, but he has done so chivalrously, honoring she who gave him shelter, and obeying courtly values. It is true that Chretiens distaste towards Lancelots character can be seen in this episode, which pokes fun at Lancelots anxiety over being forced to sleep with a beautiful woman who provides him with wonderful food and shelter, but it is important to consider Chretiens audience. Given that he was writing a romance for a female patroness, and presumably a largely female audience, it was important for his hero to be portrayed as exemplifying chivalric valor and courtly values. The intent of this episode was, therefore, to demonstrate Lancelots loyalty to his true love and his worthiness of Loves favors, and his passing of the test sets the tone for his ultimate success in his quest to re scue the Queen.